Credit Cards


  • credit card associations such as MasterCard, Visa, American Express, Discover

  • issuing banks, which issue cards to customers

  • acquiring banks, which process transactions for merchants who accept credit cards

  • third-party processors, who have contracts with issuers and acquirers to provide transaction processing and other services

Credit cards are often used in the layering or integration stages, as cash payments to cards are often restricted. Accounts are usually over-paid, creating a credit balance, which can be returned via a refund.

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